Wednesday, December 31, 2008

Advanced Programming in the UNIX Environment or Storage Area Networks for Dummies

Advanced Programming in the UNIX® Environment

Author: W Richard Stevens

"This is the definitive reference book for any serious or professional UNIX systems programmer. Rago has updated and extended the original Stevens classic while keeping true to the original."

—Andrew Josey, Director, Certification, The Open Group, and Chair of the POSIX 1003.1 Working Group

The same trusted content from the Second Edition, now in paperback!

For over a decade, serious C programmers have relied on one book for practical, in-depth knowledge of the programming interfaces that drive the UNIX and Linux kernels: W. Richard Stevens' Advanced Programming in the UNIX® Environment. Now, Stevens' colleague Stephen Rago has thoroughly updated this classic to reflect the latest technical advances and add support for today's leading UNIX and Linux platforms.

Rago carefully retains the spirit and approach that made this book a classic. Building on Stevens' work, he begins with basic topics such as files, directories, and processes, carefully laying the groundwork for understanding more advanced techniques, such as signal handling and terminal I/O.

Substantial new material includes chapters on threads and multithreaded programming, using the socket interface to drive interprocess communication (IPC), and extensive coverage of the interfaces added to the latest version of the POSIX.1 standard. Nearly all examples have been tested on four of today's most widely used UNIX/Linux platforms: FreeBSD 5.2.1; the Linux 2.4.22 kernel; Solaris 9; and Darwin 7.4.0, the FreeBSD/Mach hybrid underlying Apple's Mac OS X 10.3.

As in the first edition, you'll learn through example, including more than 10,000lines of downloadable, ANSI C source code. More than 400 system calls and functions are demonstrated with concise, complete programs that clearly illustrate their usage, arguments, and return values. To tie together what you've learned, the book presents several chapter-length case studies, each fully updated for contemporary environments.

Advanced Programming in the UNIX® Environment has helped a generation of programmers write code with exceptional power, performance, and reliability. Now updated for today's UNIX/Linux systems, this second edition will be even more indispensable.

Table of Contents:


Preface to the First Edition.

1. UNIX System Overview.


UNIX Architecture.

Logging In.

Files and Directories.

Input and Output.

Programs and Processes.

Error Handling.

User Identification.


Time Values.

System Calls and Library Functions.


2. UNIX Standardization and Implementations.


UNIX Standardization.

UNIX System Implementations.

Relationship of Standards and Implementations.



Feature Test Macros.

Primitive System Data Types.

Conflicts Between Standards.


3. File I/O.


File Descriptors.

open Function.

creat Function.


lseek Function.

read Function.

write Function.

I/O Efficiency.

File Sharing.

Atomic Operations.

dup and dup2 Functions.

sync, fsync, and fdatasync Functions.

fcntl Function.

ioctl Function.



4. Files and Directories.


stat, fstat, and lstat Functions.

File Types.

Set-User-ID and Set-Group-ID.

File Access Per missions.

Ownership of New Files and Directories.

access Function.

umask Function.

chmodand fchmodFunctions.

Sticky Bit.

chown, fchown, and lchown Functions.

File Size.

File Truncation.

File Systems.

link, unlink, remove, and rename Functions.

Symbolic Links.

symlinkand readlink Functions.

File Times.

utime Function.

mkdirand rmdir Functions.

Reading Director ies.

chdir, fchdir, and getcwd Functions.

Device Special Files.

Summary of File Access Per mission Bits.


5. Standard I/O Library.


Streams and FILE Objects.

Standard Input, Standard Output, and Standard Error.


Opening a Stream.

Reading and Writing a Stream.

Line-at-a-Time I/O.

Standard I/O Efficiency.

Binary I/O.

Positioning a Stream.

Formatted I/O.

Implementation Details.

Temporary Files.

Alternatives to Standard I/O.


6. System Data Files and Information.


Password File.

Shadow Passwords.

Group File.

Supplementary Group Ids.

Implementation Differences.

Other Data Files.

Login Accounting.

System Identification.

Time and Date Routines.


7. Process Environment.


main Function.

Process Termination.

Command-Line Arguments.

Environment List.

Memory Layout of a C Program.

Shared Libraries.

Memory Allocation.

Environment Variables.

setjmp and longjmp Functions.

getrlimit and setrlimit Functions.


8. Process Control.


Process Identifiers.

fork Function.

vfork Function.

exit Functions.

waitand waitpid Functions.

waitid Function.

wait3and wait4Functions.

Race Conditions.

exec Functions.

Changing User IDs and Group IDs.

Interpreter Files.

system Function.

Process Accounting.

User Identification.

Process Times.


9. Process Relationships.


Terminal Logins.

Network Logins.

Process Groups.


Controlling Terminal.

tcgetpgrp, tcsetpgrp, and tcgetsid Functions.

Job Control.

Shell Execution of Programs.

Orphaned Process Groups.

FreeBSD Implementation.


10. Signals.


Signal Concepts.

signal Function.

Unreliable Signals.

Interrupted System Calls.

Reentrant Functions.

SIGCLD Semantics.

Reliable-Signal Terminology and Semantics.

killand raise Functions.

alarmand pause Functions.

Signal Sets.

sigprocmask Function.

sigpending Function.

sigaction Function.

sigsetjmp and siglongjmp Functions.

sigsuspend Function.

abort Function.

system Function.

sleep Function.

Job-Control Signals.

Additional Features.


11. Threads.


Thread Concepts.

Thread Identification.

Thread Creation.

Thread Termination.

Thread Synchronization.


12. Thread Control.


Thread Limits.

hread Attributes.

Synchronization Attributes.


Thread-Specific Data.

Cancel Options.

Threads and Signals.

Threads and fork.

Threads and I/O.


13. Daemon Processes.


Daemon Characteristics.

Coding Rules.

Error Logging.

Single-Instance Daemons.

Daemon Conventions.

Client-Server Model.


14. Advanced I/O.


Nonblocking I/O.

Record Locking.


I/O Multiplexing.

2 poll Function.

Asynchronous I/O.

readv and writev Functions.

readn and written Functions.

Memory-Mapped I/O.


15. Interprocess Communication.



popen and pclose Functions.




Message Queues.


Shared Memory.

Client-Server Properties.


16. Network IPC: Sockets.


Socket Descriptors.


Connection Establishment.

Data Transfer.

Socket Options.

Out-of-Band Data.

Nonblocking and Asynchronous I/O.


17 Advanced IPC.


STREAMS-Based Pipes.

Unique Connections.

Passing File Descriptors.

An Open Server, Version 1.

An Open Server, Version 2.


18. Terminal I/O.



Special Input Characters.

Getting and Setting Terminal Attributes.

Terminal Option Flags.

stty Command.

Baud Rate Functions.

Line Control Functions.

Terminal Identification.

Canonical Mode.

Noncanonical Mode.

Terminal Window Size.

termcap, terminfo, and curses.


19. Pseudo Terminals.



Opening Pseudo-Terminal Devices.

pty_fork Function.

pty Program.

Using the pty Program.

Advanced Features.


20. A Database Library.



The Library.

Implementation Overview.

Centralized or Decentralized?


Building the Library.

Source Code.



21. Communicating with a Network Printer.


The Inter net Printing Protocol.

The Hypertext Transfer Protocol.

Printer Spooling.

Source Code.


Appendix A. Function Prototypes.

Appendix B. Miscellaneous Source Code.

Our Header File.

Standard Error Routines.

Appendix C. Solutions to Selected Exercises.



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Storage Area Networks for Dummies

Author: Alex Nikitin

In case you weren’t sure, a storage area network, or SAN, is a collection of computers and storage devices connected over a high-speed optical network and dedicated to the task of storing and protecting data. SANs solve many of the data storage and management problems that have long bedeviled enterprise networks, and they save companies who use them a bundle. Which is why SAN administration is one of the highest-paid jobs in IT today. Add storage area networking to your resume and your phone will ring off the hook with calls by head-hunters promising of six-figure salaries.

Bored with in your current IT job and looking for a change of pace—and bigger bucks? Then Storage Area Networks For Dummies is for you. Have you been tasked with designing, implementing, or troubleshooting your company’s SAN and need to play catch-up in a hurry? Look no further. In no time, this book gets you on track with the know-how and confidence you need to:

  • Choose the right hardware for the job
  • Design state-of-the-art SANs
  • Implement a SAN and get it running like a well-oiled machine
  • Configure, manage and troubleshoot SANs
  • Seamlessly integrate two or more SANs
  • Become a SAN sage and give your career a major boost

From the ABCs of SANs to making the most of advanced SAN features, Storage Area Networks For Dummies covers all the bases in plain English and with loads of real-life examples. Key topics covered include:

  • What are SANs, how they work, and who needs them
  • SAN protocols, components, and common problems
  • Designing and building a SAN
  • SANs and disaster recovery
  • Networking SANs
  • Understanding, choosing, and using SAN backup solutions
  • Making the most of Point-in-Time technology
  • Outsourcing SANs
  • Managing and troubleshooting SANs
The solution to so many enterprise data storage problems, SANs equal heightened efficiency and productivity for organizations and greater prosperity for those who build and manage them. Let Storage Area Networks For Dummies help you get in on the ground floor of one of today’s hottest IT growth areas.

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